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Definition and classification of Mental disorders

في الثلاثاء يناير 29, 2013 12:44 am
Many difficulties Face the definition of mental disorders this is probably based on the difficulties Facing the identification of the etiological factors of mental disorders .
Some researches define mental disorder as ( a disorder that is , by exclusion , not physical ) . This definition can not be accepted , since it is difficult to define clear boundaries between physical and mental disorders (1) . Other researches define mental disorder as a disorder of personality . This definition , as well , can not be accepted , since personality disorders can occur in some body who does not suffer form other mental disorders (1) .
Another definition view mental disorders as emotional disorders that result from stressful psychological events .
ــــــــــــــــــ
* PROF. DIAA E .Elgaili, M.D. Professor of Psychiatry , Head of the Dept . of Mental Health , Faculty of Medicine University OF Gezira .
This definition limits mental disorders within the boundaries of emotional disorders , and limits the etiology of mental disorder to psychological factors only . This definition can not be accepted , based on the above mentioned limitations .
One of the definitions of mental disorder is that it is a functional disorder of personality , that presents in the form of a varit of psychiatric and physical symptoms , and influences behavior in a way that results in difficulty in achieving psychological adjustment . The problem with this definition is that it views mental disorder as purely functional and neglects organic mental disorders .
In and attempt to develop internationally accepted definition and classification of mental disorders , The World Health Organization (W.H.O) developed the International Classification of Mental Disorders (I.C.D). The 5th chapter of the 10th version of the (I.C.D) defined mental disorder as (a disorder presenting with a group of symptoms and signs that can be well identified clinically , and accompanied by disturbance in daily functioning) . (3) .



classification of Mental disorders : -
For a considerable length of time , there was no internationally accepted classification of mental disorders . The difficulty in classifying mental disorders resulted from a number of factors . The symptoms of mental disorders are generally not disease specific . In addition , the basic elements that describe a disease (its etiology , progression , specific symptoms , ect) are not usually evident in the case of mental disorders .
Based on the above mentioned facts , then the best way to classify mental disorders is probably based on the most prominent symptoms of the disorder . This kind of classification does not provide enough criteria to diagnose a specific disease entity . A proper diagnosis requires a meticulous interpretation of the symptoms , the progression of the disease , as well as the duration of the disorder .
Over the years , a number of different systems of classification of mental disorders were developed, this include :


1. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders (D.S.M ) :-
The American Association of Psychiatrists developed the ( D.S.M ) , in an attempt to develop diagnostic criteria for mental disorders , based on a multi – axes system .
2. The International Classification of Mental Disorders (I.C.D):-
In an attempt to develop an internationally accepted system of classification , the ( W.H.O ) issued the international classification of diseases . Chapter 5 of the 10th edition of the (I.C.D) , contains definition and classification of mental disorders . It contains description of about (300) disorders , and provides clinical describtion of each disorder , as well as the diagnostic guidelines .






classification of Mental disorders according (I .C.D. 10 )

F00-F09 Organic Including Symptomatic Mental disorders .
F10-F19 Mental and behavioural disorders due to psychoactive substance use .
F20-F29 Schizophrenia , Schizotypal and delusional disorders .
F30-F39 Mood (Affective) disorders .
F40-F49 Neurotic , Stress related and somatoform disorders .
F50-F59 Behavioural syndromes associated with physiological disturbance and physical factors .
F60-F69 Disorders of Adult personality and behaviour .
F70-F79 Mental Retardation .
F80-F89 Disorders of psycholgical Development .
F90-F99 Other behavioural and emotional disorders with onset usually occurring in child hood and Adolescence .

classification of Mental disorders according to D .S.M.

1 Mental Retardation .
2 Learning Disorders .
3 Motor skills Disorder .
4 Commumication Disorders .
5 Mood Disorders .
6 Bipolar Disorders .
7 Anxiety Disorder .
8 Somatoform Disorders .
9 Dissociative Disorders .
10 Substance – Related Disorders .
11 Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders .
12 Sleep Disorders .
13 Eating Disorder .
14 Shizopherenia and other psychotic Disorders .
15 Factitous Disorders .
16 Personality Disorders .
17 Impulpse – Control Disorders not Elsewhere classified .
18 Adjustment Disorders .
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